Monthly Archives: December 2011
Chuck Palahniuk | Thought Verbs
Chuck Palahniuk © Jim Clark

Chuck Palahniuk © Jim Clark

Thought Verbs
by Chuck Palahniuk

In six seconds, you’ll hate me.
But in six months, you’ll be a better writer.

From this point forward—at least for the next half year—you may not use “thought” verbs. These include: Thinks, Knows, Understands, Realizes, Believes, Wants, Remembers, Imagines, Desires, and a hundred others you love to use.

The list should also include: Loves and Hates.

And it should include: Is and Has, but we’ll get to those later.

Until some time around Christmas, you can’t write: Kenny wondered if Monica didn’t like him going out at night…”

Instead, you’ll have to Un-pack that to something like: “The mornings after Kenny had stayed out, beyond the last bus, until he’d had to bum a ride or pay for a cab and got home to find Monica faking sleep, faking because she never slept that quiet, those mornings, she’d only put her own cup of coffee in the microwave. Never his.”

Instead of characters knowing anything, you must now present the details that allow the reader to know them. Instead of a character wanting something, you must now describe the thing so that the reader wants it.

Instead of saying: “Adam knew Gwen liked him.” You’ll have to say: “Between classes, Gwen had always leaned on his locker when he’d go to open it. She’s roll her eyes and shove off with one foot, leaving a black-heel mark on the painted metal, but she also left the smell of her perfume. The combination lock would still be warm from her butt. And the next break, Gwen would be leaned there, again.”

In short, no more short-cuts. Only specific sensory detail: action, smell, taste, sound, and feeling.

Typically, writers use these “thought” verbs at the beginning of a paragraph (In this form, you can call them “Thesis Statements” and I’ll rail against those, later). In a way, they state the intention of the paragraph. And what follows, illustrates them.

For example:

“Brenda knew she’d never make the deadline. Traffic was backed up from the bridge, past the first eight or nine exits. Her cell phone battery was dead. At home, the dogs would need to go out, or there would be a mess to clean up. Plus, she’d promised to water the plants for her neighbor…”

Do you see how the opening “thesis statement” steals the thunder of what follows? Don’t do it.
If nothing else, cut the opening sentence and place it after all the others. Better yet, transplant it and change it to: Brenda would never make the deadline.

Thinking is abstract. Knowing and believing are intangible. Your story will always be stronger if you just show the physical actions and details of your characters and allow your reader to do the thinking and knowing. And loving and hating.

Don’t tell your reader: “Lisa hated Tom.”

Instead, make your case like a lawyer in court, detail by detail.

Present each piece of evidence. For example:

“During roll call, in the breath after the teacher said Tom’s name, in that moment before he could answer, right then, Lisa would whisper-shout ‘Butt Wipe,’ just as Tom was saying, ‘Here’.”

One of the most-common mistakes that beginning writers make is leaving their characters alone. Writing, you may be alone. Reading, your audience may be alone. But your character should spend very, very little time alone. Because a solitary character starts thinking or worrying or wondering.

For example: Waiting for the bus, Mark started to worry about how long the trip would take…”

A better break-down might be: “The schedule said the bus would come by at noon, but Mark’s watch said it was already 11:57. You could see all the way down the road, as far as the Mall, and not see a bus. No doubt, the driver was parked at the turn-around, the far end of the line, taking a nap. The driver was kicked back, asleep, and Mark was going to be late. Or worse, the driver was drinking, and he’d pull up drunk and charge Mark seventy-five cents for death in a fiery traffic accident…”

A character alone must lapse into fantasy or memory, but even then you can’t use “thought” verbs or any of their abstract relatives.

Oh, and you can just forget about using the verbs forget and remember.

No more transitions such as: “Wanda remembered how Nelson used to brush her hair.”

Instead: “Back in their sophomore year, Nelson used to brush her hair with smooth, long strokes of his hand.”

Again, Un-pack. Don’t take short-cuts.

Better yet, get your character with another character, fast. Get them together and get the action started. Let their actions and words show their thoughts. You—stay out of their heads.

And while you’re avoiding “thought” verbs, be very wary about using the bland verbs “is” and “have.”

For example:

“Ann’s eyes are blue.”

“Ann has blue eyes.”

Versus:

“Ann coughed and waved one hand past her face, clearing the cigarette smoke from her eyes, blue eyes, before she smiled…”

Instead of bland “is” and “has” statements, try burying your details of what a character has or is, in actions or gestures. At its most basic, this is showing your story instead of telling it.
And forever after, once you’ve learned to Un-pack your characters, you’ll hate the lazy writer who settles for: “Jim sat beside the telephone, wondering why Amanda didn’t call.”

Please. For now, hate me all you want, but don’t use thought verbs. After Christmas, go crazy, but I’d bet money you won’t.

(…)

For this month’s homework, pick through your writing and circle every “thought” verb. Then, find some way to eliminate it. Kill it by Un-packing it.

Then, pick through some published fiction and do the same thing. Be ruthless.

“Marty imagined fish, jumping in the moonlight…”

“Nancy recalled the way the wine tasted…”

“Larry knew he was a dead man…”

Find them. After that, find a way to re-write them. Make them stronger.


West Village | Music Inn
Andy at the Music Inn, West Village © Doug Kim, Leica MP 0.58, 35mm Summicron, Kodak Tri-X

Andy at the Music Inn, West Village © Doug Kim, Leica MP 0.58, 35mm Summicron, Kodak Tri-X

Andy at the Music Inn, West Village © Doug Kim, Leica MP 0.58, 35mm Summicron, Kodak Tri-X

Andy at the Music Inn, West Village © Doug Kim, Leica MP 0.58, 35mm Summicron, Kodak Tri-X

Andy at the Music Inn, West Village © Doug Kim, Leica MP 0.58, 35mm Summicron, Kodak Tri-X

Andy at the Music Inn, West Village © Doug Kim, Leica MP 0.58, 35mm Summicron, Kodak Tri-X


Magnum Photos | The Mexican Suitcase

In December 2007, three boxes filled with rolls of film containing 4,500 35mm negatives of the Spanish Civil War (1936-39) taken by Robert Capa, Gerda Taro, and David Seymour (aka “Chim”)—which had been considered lost since 1939—arrived at the International Center of Photography. These three photographers, who lived in Paris, worked in Spain, and published internationally, laid the foundation for modern war photography. Their work has long been considered some of the most innovative and passionate coverage of the Spanish Civil War. An exhibition of Mexican Suitcase images is on view at the ICP from Sept. 24, 2010, to Jan. 9, 2011.

 

The Mexican Suitcase

The Mexican Suitcase

 

Many of the contact sheets made from the negatives are on view as part of the exhibition, which looks closely at some of the major stories covered by Capa, Taro, and Chim, as interpreted through the individual frames. These images can be seen alongside the magazines of the period in which they were published and with the photographers’ own contact notebooks.

The complete story is available on the ICP site.

 

E BARCARÈS, France—Exiled Republicans being marched on the beach from one internment camp to another area by a French policeman, March 1939.

E BARCARÈS, France—Exiled Republicans being marched on the beach from one internment camp to another area by a French policeman, March 1939.

MADRID—A Republican officer and Gerda Taro in University City, February 1937.

MADRID—A Republican officer and Gerda Taro in University City, February 1937.

TERUEL, Spain—A man carrying a wounded boy, December 1937. © ROBERT CAPA © 2001 By Cornell Capa / Magnum Photos

TERUEL, Spain—A man carrying a wounded boy, December 1937. © ROBERT CAPA © 2001 By Cornell Capa / Magnum Photos

TERUEL, Spain—Ernest Hemingway (third from left), New York Times journalist Herbert Matthews (second from left), and two Republican soldiers, late December 1937. © ROBERT CAPA © 2001 By Cornell Capa / Magnum Photos

TERUEL, Spain—Ernest Hemingway (third from left), New York Times journalist Herbert Matthews (second from left), and two Republican soldiers, late December 1937. © ROBERT CAPA © 2001 By Cornell Capa / Magnum Photos

SPAIN—An outdoor mass for Republican soldiers, near Lekeitio, in the Basque region, January/February 1937. © David Seymour / Magnum Photos

SPAIN—An outdoor mass for Republican soldiers, near Lekeitio, in the Basque region, January/February 1937. © David Seymour / Magnum Photos

MADRID—Dolores Ibárruri (La Pasionaria), spring/summer 1936. © David Seymour / Magnum Photos

MADRID—Dolores Ibárruri (La Pasionaria), spring/summer 1936. © David Seymour / Magnum Photos

SPAIN—A mother nursing a baby while listening to a political speech near Badajoz, Extremadura, late April/early May 1936. © David Seymour / Magnum Photos

SPAIN—A mother nursing a baby while listening to a political speech near Badajoz, Extremadura, late April/early May 1936. © David Seymour / Magnum Photos

MADRID—Two Republican soldiers carrying a crucifix, October/November 1936. © David Seymour / Magnum Photos

MADRID—Two Republican soldiers carrying a crucifix, October/November 1936. © David Seymour / Magnum Photos

VALENCIA, Spain—Training of the New People’s Army, March 1937. © Gerda Taro © 2002 by International Center of Photography/Magnum Photos / Magnum Photos

VALENCIA, Spain—Training of the New People’s Army, March 1937. © Gerda Taro © 2002 by International Center of Photography/Magnum Photos / Magnum Photos

VALENCIA, Spain—A crowd at the gate of a morgue after an air raid, May 1937. © Gerda Taro © 2002 by International Center of Photography/Magnum Photos / Magnum Photos

VALENCIA, Spain—A crowd at the gate of a morgue after an air raid, May 1937. © Gerda Taro © 2002 by International Center of Photography/Magnum Photos / Magnum Photos

MADRID—Workers fortifying the Plaza de Cibeles, spring 1937. © Gerda Taro © 2002 by International Center of Photography/Magnum Photos / Magnum Photos

MADRID—Workers fortifying the Plaza de Cibeles, spring 1937. © Gerda Taro © 2002 by International Center of Photography/Magnum Photos / Magnum Photos

SPAIN—A Republican soldier on a motorcycle at the Segovia front, in Navacerrada Pass, late May/early June 1937. © Gerda Taro © 2002 by International Center of Photography/Magnum Photos / Magnum Photos

SPAIN—A Republican soldier on a motorcycle at the Segovia front, in Navacerrada Pass, late May/early June 1937. © Gerda Taro © 2002 by International Center of Photography/Magnum Photos / Magnum Photos

MADRID—A woman taking inventory of the paintings in the collection of Las Descalzas Reales with two Republican soldiers, October/November 1936. © David Seymour / Magnum Photos

MADRID—A woman taking inventory of the paintings in the collection of Las Descalzas Reales with two Republican soldiers, October/November 1936. © David Seymour / Magnum Photos

SPAIN—Republican soldiers on the Segovia front in Navacerrada Pass, May/June 1937. © Gerda Taro © 2002 by International Center of Photography/Magnum Photos / Magnum Photos

SPAIN—Republican soldiers on the Segovia front in Navacerrada Pass, May/June 1937. © Gerda Taro © 2002 by International Center of Photography/Magnum Photos / Magnum Photos

TERUEL, Spain—Republican soldiers in a destroyed building on the lookout for Nationalist soldiers, December 1937. © ROBERT CAPA © 2001 By Cornell Capa / Magnum Photos

TERUEL, Spain—Republican soldiers in a destroyed building on the lookout for Nationalist soldiers, December 1937. © ROBERT CAPA © 2001 By Cornell Capa / Magnum Photos

AMOREBIETA, Spain—Republican soldiers running in the Basque region, 1937. © David Seymour / Magnum Photos

AMOREBIETA, Spain—Republican soldiers running in the Basque region, 1937. © David Seymour / Magnum Photos

VALENCIA, Spain—Air-raid victims in the morgue, May 1937. © Gerda Taro © 2002 by International Center of Photography/Magnum Photos / Magnum Photos

VALENCIA, Spain—Air-raid victims in the morgue, May 1937. © Gerda Taro © 2002 by International Center of Photography/Magnum Photos / Magnum Photos

SPAIN—Two Republican soldiers with another on a stretcher, in Navacerrada Pass, May/June 1937. © Gerda Taro © 2002 by International Center of Photography/Magnum Photos / Magnum Photos

SPAIN—Two Republican soldiers with another on a stretcher, in Navacerrada Pass, May/June 1937. © Gerda Taro © 2002 by International Center of Photography/Magnum Photos / Magnum Photos

SPAIN—Republican soldiers storming forward in jumps, at Rio Segre, on the Aragon front, near Fraga, Nov. 7, 1938. © ROBERT CAPA © 2001 By Cornell Capa / Magnum Photos

SPAIN—Republican soldiers storming forward in jumps, at Rio Segre, on the Aragon front, near Fraga, Nov. 7, 1938. © ROBERT CAPA © 2001 By Cornell Capa / Magnum Photos

SPAIN—A Republican machine-gunner behind stones, Nov. 7, 1938. © ROBERT CAPA © 2001 By Cornell Capa / Magnum Photos

SPAIN—A Republican machine-gunner behind stones, Nov. 7, 1938. © ROBERT CAPA © 2001 By Cornell Capa / Magnum Photos

SPAIN—Bottles and glasses on a table in the Basque region, January 1937. © David Seymour / Magnum Photos

SPAIN—Bottles and glasses on a table in the Basque region, January 1937. © David Seymour / Magnum Photos

BRAM, France—A line of men receiving food in an internment camp for Republican exiles, March 1939. © ROBERT CAPA © 2001 By Cornell Capa / Magnum Photos

BRAM, France—A line of men receiving food in an internment camp for Republican exiles, March 1939. © ROBERT CAPA © 2001 By Cornell Capa / Magnum Photos

PARIS—Photographers Gerda Taro and Robert Capa at the Café du Dôme in Montparnasse, early 1936. © Fred Stein / Magnum Photos

PARIS—Photographers Gerda Taro and Robert Capa at the Café du Dôme in Montparnasse, early 1936. © Fred Stein / Magnum Photos


Shiprock, NM | Livestock Auction
Livestock Auction, Navajo Fair, Shiprock, NM © Doug Kim; Leica MP 0.58, 35mm Summicron, Kodak Tri-X

Livestock Auction, Navajo Fair, Shiprock, NM © Doug Kim; Leica MP 0.58, 35mm Summicron, Kodak Tri-X

Livestock Auction, Navajo Fair, Shiprock, NM © Doug Kim; Leica MP 0.58, 35mm Summicron, Kodak Tri-X

Livestock Auction, Navajo Fair, Shiprock, NM © Doug Kim; Leica MP 0.58, 35mm Summicron, Kodak Tri-X

Livestock Auction, Navajo Fair, Shiprock, NM © Doug Kim; Leica MP 0.58, 35mm Summicron, Kodak Tri-X

Livestock Auction, Navajo Fair, Shiprock, NM © Doug Kim; Leica MP 0.58, 35mm Summicron, Kodak Tri-X